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Chemistry 1A - Programme of Study


Learning Objectives

Possible Teaching Activities

Points to note/Risk assessment/homework

Differentiated Outcomes


Atoms and elements.

  • All substances are made of atoms.

  • An element is made of only one type of atom.

  • There are about 100 different elements in the periodic table.

  • The groups contain elements with different properties.

  • Worksheets on atoms and elements.

  • Use modelling with building blocks e.g. lego to demonstrate atoms joining to make compounds.

  • Demo reaction of alkali metals to illustrate patterns in groups of the periodic table. Worksheet-reactions of group 1 metals with water. H F

  • GCSE Chemistry: Brainiac Alkali Metals

This will be covered in post SATS time.

AQA text-P110

Depending on time available. ICT researching a particular element using the internet or researching the history of the periodic table. (HSW).

Chemistry: WebElements Periodic Table



Atoms and equations.

  • Atoms of each element have a symbol.

  • The formula of a compound shows the number and type of atoms that are joined together to make a compound.

  • Atoms and symbols are used to represent what is happening in a chemical reaction.

  • In a balanced equation, no atoms are lost or gained. No mass gained or lost.

  • Worksheet on interpreting formula. P112 AQA text.

  • Chemical reactions and equations worksheet. Demo of burning in oxygen.

  • Or equations for reactions sheet done as a class practical or demo or mixtures.

  • Worksheet on balancing equations.

  • Demonstration of burning magnesium in a crucible, record accurate mass before and after heating.

Homework-Worksheet on how elements get their names.

HSW-using data to draw conclusions.


Atomic structure.

  • Atoms have a small central nucleus around which there are electrons.

  • Boardworks.

  • Stick in AQA worksheet on atomic structure,

  • Questions 112/113 AQA text.

P112/113 AQA text book

HW/Extension-upper sets-HSW-Early thinking on atomic structure.

BBC - GCSE Bite size - Chemistry - tests

Basic atomic structure with lower sets.

Use of atomic number/mass number and electronic configuration-higher.



  • When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds.

  • A chemical bond involves giving, taking or sharing electrons.

  • If not done burning in oxygen, hydrogen bomb, heating iron and sulphur.

  • Continue equations.

  • Finding out about bonding sheet.

  • Draw other structures showing electrons. P115

HSW-Using evidence Hindenburg newspaper story.
Famous radio broadcast



  • Limestone, containing the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material.

  • Lower sets limestone video.

  • Look at samples of different limestones.

  • Limestone role play/poster on siting a limestone quarry. Use info p117

HSW-societal aspects of scientific evidence. Refer to peak district quarries.


Heating limestone

  • Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide (quicklime) and carbon dioxide.

· Carbonates of other metals decompose on heating in a similar way.

  • Quicklime (calcium oxide) reacts with water to produce slaked lime (calcium hydroxide).

Worksheet-heating limestone.

Heating a limestone chip. Cool and then add water. Word equation and names needed.

Heating copper carbonate to demonstrate the thermal decomposition of other carbonates.

Demo blowing into limewater, or bubbling carbon dioxide into limewater.

Could heat different carbonates and bubble into limewater.

Corus Heated Coffee Can Demo

Risk assessment-care with hot limestone which may shatter. Must have safety goggles, hair tied back.

Care adding water to heated limestone, which should first be cooled.

Self heating coffee cans contain calcium oxide.

Upper sets-further equations on what happens when CO2 is bubbled into limewater.


Uses of limestone

  • Limestone and its products have many uses, including slaked lime, mortar, cement, concrete and glass.

Worksheet on uses of limestone.

Stick limestone information sheet into books. Limestone question sheet.


Metals and ores

  • Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal and this changes over time.

  • Unreactive metals such as gold are found in the Earth as the metal itself but most metals are found as compounds that require chemical reactions to extract the metal.

  • Boardworks Recap reactivity series.

  • If time reactivity of metals with dilute acid.

  • Displacement-reactions (demo of copper and silver nitrate).

HW-metals and their ores question sheet.

Extension-UPd8 activity based upon the reactivity series.


Metal extraction-iron

  • Metals that are less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon, for example iron oxide is reduced in the blast furnace to make iron. (Details of the blast furnace are not required?)

Demo Thermit reaction.

Homework-P124/125.Aqa GCSE science.

Investigate carbon powder with lead oxide, copper oxide, zinc oxide and iron oxide, in ignition tubes.

Alternatively extract lead from lead oxide.

Demo only-Safety screen-read cleapps risk assessment.


The Blast Furnace
  • Iron from the blast furnace contains about 96% iron. The impurities make it brittle and so it has limited uses.

  • Removing all of the impurities would produce pure iron. Pure iron has a regular arrangement of atoms, with layers that can slide over each other, and so is soft and easily shaped, but too soft for many uses.

Blast furnace work sheet-detail of equations not needed. P122/123

Jumbled up blast furnace words-lower sets.


Structure of atoms in iron.

Introduce terms oxidation and reduction P122/123.

Impurities and properties-demo effect of sand in plasticine. Stretch plasticine and observe differences.

As appropriate properties of materials.

Corus Virtual Activity Centre



  • Most iron is converted into steels. Steels are alloys since they are mixtures of iron with carbon and other metals.

  • The different sized atoms added distort the layers in the structure of the pure metal, making it more difficult for them to slide over each other, and so alloys are harder.

  • Alloys can be designed to have properties for specific uses. Low carbon steels are easily shaped, high carbon steels are hard, and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion.

Examples of different steels.

Aqa text book-Arrangement of

Particles in cast iron and steel.


Questions P127

Alloys P126/127

Worksheet on types of steel.

Pictures of Steel Products

Research rise and decline of iron/steel making in Britain over last 1000 years-HSW.



  • Many metals in everyday use are alloys. Pure copper, gold, and aluminium are too soft for many uses and so are mixed with small amounts of similar metals to make them harder for everyday use.

  • Smart alloys can return to their original shape after being deformed.

Look at circus of alloys

What is an alloy-P140

P141-How smart alloys work.

Use investigating nitinol worksheet.

Demonstration of stretching a smart alloy spring. When it is heated by

DEMO- on heat proof mat, Gets very hot, allow to cool before measuring.


Transition metals

  • The elements in the central block of the periodic table are known as transition metals. Like other metals they are good conductors of heat and electricity and can be bent or hammered into shape.

  • They are useful as structural materials and for making things that must allow heat or electricity to pass through them easily.

Look at circus of transition metal elements, describe physical properties.

P 128-highlight in students own periodic table where they are.

Work through transition metal worksheet. Including heating copper.

Draw structure including delocalisated electrons.

Extension-making borax beads.

Safety glasses.

Safety glasses, care with hot beads, beads sometimes shatter.

Upper sets naming transition metals worksheet.

Uses of transition metals worksheet.



  • Copper has properties that make it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing. Copper can be extracted by electrolysis of solutions containing copper compounds. (No details are required of the extraction process.)

  • The supply of copper-rich ores is limited.

  • New ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores are being researched to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining.

Challenge to extract copper from malachite (copper carbonate.)-Using iron wool for displacement or electrolysis.

Worksheet on uses of copper.

HW-Social impact of copper mining-

HSW-question why does metal feel cold?

BBC link

SET1-P132/133 questions.

Properties of copper in relation to delocalised electrons-upper sets only.


Aluminium and titanium

  • Low density and resistance to corrosion make aluminium and titanium useful metals. These metals cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon. Current methods of extraction are expensive because: there are many stages in the processes − much energy is needed.

Extracting aluminium AQA worksheet. Properties of Al-P132. Electrolysis Boardworks. Electrolysis picture to stick in.

Titanium P136/137

Look at Ti sample.


Recyling metals

  • We should recycle metals because extracting them uses limited resources and is expensive in terms of energy and effects on the environment.


Aluminium recycling destroying rain forests to produce Al-HSW.


Crude Oil

  • Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds.

  • A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together.

  • The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation.

  • Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.

Researching ethanol/hydrogen energy output-HSW.

Homework-set 1 fuels of the future.



Demo distillation of crude oil.

Worksheet on fractional distillation. Look at different fractions-properties of each fraction.


Key words sheets.

Extension UPd8-powdered metal powered cars.

Safety use quick fit-grease joints.

CO2 extinguishers handy.



  • Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula CnH2n+2

  • Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms:


Worksheet on alkanes.

Boardworks on alkanes.


P 146/147

Worksheet to stick to stick in on the alkane family.

Practice on writing equations-set 1,2.

Boiling point against number of carbon atoms.

Use moly model kits.

HW-question sheet.


Products of combustion

· Most fuels contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide.

·  Particles may also be released.

Demonstration of products of combustion, using a candle or illustrate using Boardworks.

UPd8 activity on acid rain. NB-Acid rain and green house effect now covered in detail in biology 1b later this year.




  • Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and particles cause global dimming.

  • Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations.

Need to reduce sulphur problems P150/151

Global dimming

Video clip-Krakatau?

BBC NEWS Krakatau: The first modern tsunami



P154-Exam practice questions.

HSW-Limitation of scientific evidence re/ global warming.

Demo burning sulphur in oxygen.







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