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KS2: Maths: Ma2: Number & Algebra: Calculations
Calculations
3. Pupils should be taught to:
Number operations and the relationships between them
develop further their understanding of the four number operations and the relationships between them including inverses; use the related vocabulary; choose suitable number operations to solve a given problem, and recognise similar problems to which they apply
find remainders after division, then express a quotient as a fraction or decimal; round up or down after division, depending on the context
understand the use of brackets to determine the order of operations; understand why the commutative, associative and distributive laws apply to addition and multiplication and how they can be used to do mental and written calculations more efficiently
Mental methods
recall all addition and subtraction facts for each number to 20
work out what they need to add to any two-digit number to make 100, then add or subtract any pair of two-digit whole numbers; handle particular cases of three-digit and four-digit additions and subtractions by using compensation or other methods [for example, 3000 - 1997, 4560 + 998]
recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and use them to derive quickly the corresponding division facts
double and halve any two-digit number
multiply and divide, at first in the range 1 to 100 [for example, 27 x 3, 65 ÷ 5], then for particular cases of larger numbers by using factors, distribution or other methods
Written methods
use written methods to add and subtract positive integers less than 1000, then up to 10000, then add and subtract numbers involving decimals; use approximations and other strategies to check that their answers are reasonable
use written methods for short multiplication and division by a single-digit integer of two-digit then three-digit then four-digit integers, then of numbers with decimals; then use long multiplication, at first for two-digit by two-digit integer calculations, then for three-digit by two-digit calculations; extend division to informal methods of dividing by a two-digit divisor [for example, 64 ÷ 16]; use approximations and other strategies to check that their answers are reasonable
Calculator methods
use a calculator for calculations involving several digits, including decimals; use a calculator to solve number problems [for example, 4 ? x 7 = 343]; know how to enter and interpret money calculations and fractions; know how to select the correct key sequence for calculations with more than one operation [for example, 56 x (87 - 48)].
Note for 3c:
Pupils do not need to know the names of these laws.
Note for 3i, 3j:
Pupils are expected to use mental methods if the calculations are suitable.
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