Pupils know about a range of properties [for example, texture, appearance] and communicate observations of materials in terms of these properties.
Pupils identify a range of common materials and know about some of their properties. They describe similarities and differences between materials. They sort materials into groups and describe the basis for their groupings in everyday terms [for example, shininess, hardness, smoothness]. They describe ways in which some materials are changed by heating or cooling or by processes such as bending or stretching.
Pupils use their knowledge and understanding of materials when they describe a variety of ways of sorting them into groups according to their properties. They explain simply why some materials are particularly suitable for specific purposes [for example, glass for windows, copper for electrical cables]. They recognise that some changes [for example, the freezing of water] can be reversed and some [for example, the baking of clay] cannot, and they classify changes in this way.
Pupils demonstrate knowledge and understanding of materials and their properties drawn from the key stage 2 or key stage 3 programme of study. They describe differences between the properties of different materials and explain how these differences are used to classify substances [for example, as solids, liquids, gases at key stage 2, as acids, alkalis at key stage 3]. They describe some methods [for example, filtration, distillation] that are used to separate simple mixtures. They use scientific terms [for example, evaporation, condensation] to describe changes. They use knowledge about some reversible and irreversible changes to make simple predictions about whether other changes are reversible or not.
Pupils demonstrate an increasing knowledge and understanding of materials and their properties drawn from the key stage 2 or key stage 3 programme of study. They describe some metallic properties [for example, good electrical conductivity] and use these properties to distinguish metals from other solids. They identify a range of contexts in which changes [for example, evaporation, condensation] take place. They use knowledge about how a specific mixture [for example, salt and water, sand and water] can be separated to suggest ways in which other similar mixtures might be separated.
Pupils use knowledge and understanding of the nature and behaviour of materials drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study to describe chemical and physical changes, and how new materials can be made. They recognise that matter is made up of particles, and describe differences between the arrangement and movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases. They identify and describe similarities between some chemical reactions [for example, the reactions of acids with metals, the reactions of a variety of substances with oxygen]. They use word equations to summarise simple reactions. They relate changes of state to energy transfers in a range of contexts [for example, the formation of igneous rocks].
Pupils use knowledge and understanding drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study to make links between the nature and behaviour of materials and the particles of which they are composed. They use the particle model of matter in explanations of phenomena [for example, changes of state]. They explain differences between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of their constituent particles. They recognise that elements and compounds can be represented by symbols and formulae. They apply their knowledge of physical and chemical processes to explain the behaviour of materials in a variety of contexts [for example, the way in which natural limestone is changed through the action of rainwater, ways in which rocks are weathered]. They use patterns of reactivity [for example, those associated with a reactivity series of metals] to make predictions about other chemical reactions.
Pupils demonstrate an extensive knowledge and understanding drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study, which they use to describe and explain the behaviour of, and changes to, materials. They use the particle model in a wide range of contexts. They describe what happens in a range of chemical reactions and classify some [for example, oxidation, neutralisation]. They represent common compounds by chemical formulae and use these formulae to form balanced symbol equations for reactions [for example, those of acids with metals, carbonates or oxides]. They apply their knowledge of patterns in chemical reactions to suggest how substances [for example, salts] could be made.
Pupils demonstrate both breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study when they describe and explain the nature and behaviour of materials. They use particle theory in a wider range of contexts, recognising that differences in the properties of materials relate to the nature of the particles within them. They recognise, and give explanations for, examples of chemical behaviour that do not fit expected patterns. They routinely use balanced symbol equations for reactions. They interpret quantitative data about chemical reactions, suggesting explanations for patterns identified.