Investigative skills
Planning

ask questions that can be investigated scientifically and decide how to find answers



make a fair test or comparison by changing one factor and observing or measuring the effect while keeping other factors the same
Obtaining and presenting evidence

use simple equipment and materials appropriately and take action to control risks


check observations and measurements by repeating them where appropriate

Considering evidence and evaluating


use observations, measurements or other data to draw conclusions


use their scientific knowledge and understanding to explain observations, measurements or other data or conclusions

review their work and the work of others and describe its significance and limitations.
Explanatory notes
Note for 2
Cross reference to English
En1 Speaking and listening: Breadth of study
10. The range of purposes should include:
a. investigating, selecting, sorting b. planning, predicting, exploring c. explaining, reporting, evaluating
Note for 2b
Cross reference to English
En2 Reading: Reading for information
3. Pupils should be taught to:
a. scan texts to find information b. skim for gist and overall impression c. obtain specific information through detailed reading d. draw on different features of texts, including print, sound and image, to obtain meaning e. use organisational features and systems to find texts and information f. distinguish between fact and opinion [for example, by looking at the purpose of the text, the reliability of information] g. consider an argument critically
Note for 2c, 2e, 2f
Units of measurement
In the international system of units, kilogram (kg) is the unit of mass. In practice mass is measured by weighing; scales measure or compare a force (a push or a pull). At key stage 2 pupils learn that the unit of weight (a type of force) is the newton.
In science the term volume is preferred to capacity. The preferred unit is cubic centimetres.
Cross reference to mathematics
Ma3 Shape, space and measures: Understanding measures
4. Pupils should be taught to:
a. recognise the need for standard units of length, mass and capacity, choose which ones are suitable for a task, and use them to make sensible estimates in everyday situations; convert one metric unit to another [for example, convert 3.17kg to 3170g]; know the rough metric equivalents of imperial units still in daily use b. recognise that measurement is approximate; choose and use suitable measuring instruments for a task; interpret numbers and read scales with increasing accuracy; record measurements using decimal notation
Note for 2f
Cross reference to ICT
Developing ideas and making things happen
2. Pupils should be taught:
b. how to create, test, improve and refine sequences of instructions to make things happen and to monitor events and respond to them [for example, monitoring changes in temperature, detecting light levels and turning on a light]
Note for 2h
Cross reference to ICT
Exchanging and sharing information
3. Pupils should be taught:
a. how to share and exchange information in a variety of forms, including email [for example, displays, posters, animations, musical compositions] b. to be sensitive to the needs of the audience and think carefully about the content and quality when communicating information [for example, work for presentation to other pupils, writing for parents, publishing on the internet]
Note for 2i, 2j
Cross reference to mathematics
Ma2 Number: Numbers and the number system
2. Pupils should be taught to:
Decimals
i. understand and use decimal notation for tenths and hundredths in context [for example, order amounts of money, round a sum of money to the nearest £, convert a length such as 1.36 metres to centimetres and vice versa]; locate on a number line, and order, a set of numbers or measurements; then recognise thousandths (only in metric measurements)
Ma2 Number: Solving numerical problems
4. Pupils should be taught to:
a. choose, use and combine any of the four number operations to solve word problems involving numbers in 'real life', money or measures of length, mass, capacity or time, then perimeter and area d. recognise, represent and interpret simple number relationships, constructing and using formulae in words then symbols [for example, c = 15 n is the cost, in pence, of n articles at 15p each]
Note for 2i, 2k
Cross reference to mathematics
Ma4 Handling data: Processing, representing and interpreting data
2. Pupils should be taught to:
a. solve problems involving data b. interpret tables, lists and charts used in everyday life; construct and interpret frequency tables, including tables for grouped discrete data c. represent and interpret discrete data using graphs and diagrams, including pictograms, bar charts and line graphs, then interpret a wider range of graphs and diagrams, using ICT where appropriate d. know that mode is a measure of average and that range is a measure of spread, and to use both ideas to describe data sets e. recognise the difference between discrete and continuous data f. draw conclusions from statistics and graphs and recognise when information is presented in a misleading way; explore doubt and certainty and develop an understanding of probability through classroom situations; discuss events using a vocabulary that includes the words 'equally likely', 'fair', 'unfair', 'certain'
