Pupils recognise and name external parts of the body [for example, head, arm] and of plants [for example, leaf, flower]. They communicate observations of a range of animals and plants in terms of features [for example, colour of coat, size of leaf]. They recognise and identify a range of common animals [for example, fly, goldfish, robin].
Pupils use their knowledge about living things to describe the basic conditions [for example, a supply of food, water, air, light] that animals and plants need in order to survive. They recognise that living things grow and reproduce. They sort living things into groups, using simple features. They describe the basis for their groupings [for example, number of legs, shape of leaf]. They recognise that different living things are found in different places [for example, ponds, woods].
Pupils use their knowledge and understanding of basic life processes [for example, growth, reproduction] when they describe differences between living and nonliving things. They provide simple explanations for changes in living things [for example, diet affecting the health of humans or other animals, lack of light or water altering plant growth]. They identify ways in which an animal is suited to its environment [for example, a fish having fins to help it swim].
Pupils demonstrate knowledge and understanding of life processes and living things drawn from the key stage 2 or key stage 3 programme of study. They use scientific names for some major organs of body systems [for example, the heart at key stage 2, the stomach at key stage 3] and identify the position of these organs in the human body. They identify organs [for example, stamen at key stage 2, stigma, root hairs at key stage 3] of different plants they observe. They use keys based on observable external features to help them to identify and group living things systematically. They recognise that feeding relationships exist between plants and animals in a habitat, and describe these relationships using food chains and terms [for example, predator and prey].
Pupils demonstrate an increasing knowledge and understanding of life processes and living things drawn from the key stage 2 or key stage 3 programme of study. They describe the main functions of organs of the human body [for example, the heart at key stage 2, stomach at key stage 3], and of the plant [for example, the stamen at key stage 2, root hairs at key stage 3]. They explain how these functions are essential to the organism. They describe the main stages of the life cycles of humans and flowering plants and point out similarities. They recognise that there is a great variety of living things and understand the importance of classification. They explain that different organisms are found in different habitats because of differences in environmental factors [for example, the availability of light or water].
Pupils use knowledge and understanding drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study to describe and explain life processes and features of living things. They use appropriate scientific terminology when they describe life processes [for example, respiration, photosynthesis] in animals and plants. They distinguish between related processes [for example, pollination, fertilisation]. They describe simple cell structure and identify differences between simple animal and plant cells. They describe some of the causes of variation between living things. They explain that the distribution and abundance of organisms in habitats are affected by environmental factors [for example, the availability of light or water].
Pupils use knowledge and understanding of life processes and living things drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study to make links between life processes in animals and plants and the organ systems involved. They explain the processes of respiration and photosynthesis in terms of the main underlying chemical change. They use their knowledge of cell structure to explain how cells [for example, ovum, sperm, root hair] are adapted to their functions. They identify common variations between individuals, including some features [for example, eye colour] that are inherited and others [for example, height] that can also be affected by environmental factors. They construct models [for example, food webs, pyramids of numbers] to show feeding relationships, and explain how these relationships affect population size.
Pupils demonstrate an extensive knowledge and understanding of life processes and living things drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study by describing and explaining how biological systems function. They relate the cellular structure of organs to the associated life processes [for example, the absorption of food in the digestive system, gas exchange in the lungs]. They recognise, predict and explain changes in biological systems [for example, the effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the growth of greenhouse crops, the consequences of smoking for organ systems]. They explain how characteristics can be inherited by individuals and apply their knowledge [for example, in relation to selective breeding]. They predict the short-term and long-term effects of environmental change on ecosystems and use their understanding of such systems to justify their predictions.
Pupils demonstrate both breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding drawn from the key stage 3 programme of study when they describe and explain how biological systems function. They recognise that organisms respond to change, and describe ways in which this is achieved. They relate their understanding of internal and external cellular structures to life processes [for example, the increased surface areas of cells in the digestive system]. They relate their understanding of cellular structure to inheritance and variation and explain how this leads to new varieties [for example, how genetic engineering is a modern form of selective breeding]. They recognise the importance of quantitative data [for example, related to populations in an environment] when they describe and explain patterns of change within an ecosystem.