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KS3 English : Key Processes

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2. Key processes

These are the essential skills and processes in English that pupils need to learn to make progress.

2.1 Speaking and listening

Pupils should be able to:
  • present information and points of view clearly and appropriately in different contexts, adapting talk for a range of purposes and audiences, including the more formal
  • use a range of ways to structure and organise their speech to support their purposes and guide the listener
  • vary vocabulary, structures and grammar to convey meaning, including speaking standard English fluently
  • engage an audience, using a range of techniques to explore, enrich and explain their ideas
  • listen and respond constructively to others, taking different views into account and modifying their own views in the light of what others say
  • understand explicit and implicit meanings
  • make different kinds of relevant contributions in groups, responding appropriately to others, proposing ideas and asking questions
  • take different roles in organising, planning and sustaining talk in groups
  • sift, summarise and use the most important points
  • use different dramatic approaches to explore ideas, texts and issues
  • use different dramatic techniques to convey action, character, atmosphere and tension
  • explore the ways that words, actions, sound and staging combine to create dramatic moments.

2.2 Reading

Reading for meaning
Pupils should be able to:
  • extract and interpret information, events, main points and ideas from texts
  • infer and deduce meanings, recognising the writers’ intentions
  • understand how meaning is constructed within sentences and across texts as a whole
  • select and compare information from different texts
  • assess the usefulness of texts, sift the relevant from the irrelevant and distinguish between fact and opinion
  • recognise and discuss different interpretations of texts, justifying their own views on what they read and see, and supporting them with evidence
  • understand how audiences and readers choose and respond to texts
  • understand how the nature and purpose of texts influences the selection of content and its meanings
  • understand how meaning is created through the combination of words, images and sounds in multimodal texts.
The author’s craft
Pupils should be able to understand and comment on:
  • how texts are crafted to shape meaning and produce particular effects
  • how writers structure and organise different texts, including non-linear and multimodal
  • how writers’ uses of language and rhetorical, grammatical and literary features influence the reader
  • how writers present ideas and issues to have an impact on the reader
  • how form, layout and presentation contribute to effect
  • how themes are explored in different texts
  • how texts relate to the social, historical and cultural context in which they were written.

2.3 Writing

Pupils should be able to:
  • write clearly and coherently, including an appropriate level of detail
  • write imaginatively, creatively and thoughtfully, producing texts that interest and engage the reader
  • generate and harness new ideas and develop them in their writing
  • adapt style and language appropriately for a range of forms, purposes and readers
  • maintain consistent points of view in fiction and non-fiction writing
  • use imaginative vocabulary and varied linguistic and literary techniques to achieve particular effects
  • structure their writing to support the purpose of the task and guide the reader
  • use clearly demarcated paragraphs to organise meaning
  • use complex sentences to extend, link and develop ideas
  • vary sentence structure for interest, effect and subtleties of meaning
  • consider what the reader needs to know and include relevant details
  • use formal and impersonal language and concise expression
  • develop logical arguments and cite evidence
  • use persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices
  • form their own view, taking into account a range of evidence and opinions
  • present material clearly, using appropriate layout, illustrations and organisation
  • use planning, drafting, editing, proofreading and self-evaluation to shape and craft their writing for maximum effect
  • summarise and take notes
  • write legibly, with fluency and, when required, speed.
Technical accuracy
Pupils should be able to:
  • use the conventions of standard English effectively
  • use grammar accurately in a variety of sentence types, including subject–verb agreement and correct and consistent use of tense
  • signal sentence structure by the effective use of the full range of punctuation marks to clarify meaning
  • spell correctly, increasing their knowledge of regular patterns of spelling, word families, roots of words and derivations, including prefixes, suffixes and inflections.

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